A '''shomer''' (, pl. שומרים, '''shomrim''') in Halacha
is a Jew
ish legal guardian
, entrusted with the custody and care of another's object.
The laws of shomrim are derived from the Torah
in Book of Exodus|Shemot (Exodus) s:Tanakh/Torah/Shemot#Shemot 22|22:6-14
. It is discussed in the Talmud
in Nezikin|Seder Nezikin
in tractates Bava Kamma
and Bava Metzia
There are four types of shomrim: shomer ḥinnam, shomer sakhar, shoel, and sokher,
[Mishnah, Bava Metzia 93a]
corresponding to an unpaid custodian, a paid custodian, a borrower, and a renter respectively. Each shomer has specific distinct laws that apply to it. In halacha there are two major factors that determine a guardian's liability: the ability to use the item, and the exchange of money. In general the ability to use the item (in the case of a renter and a borrower) or being paid to watch the item (in the...